Thermolysis Tyre Product Specifications
Derived Fuel Oil
The Derived Fuel Oil has a typical composition:
|Appearance:||Dark brown oil|
|Distillation, % w/w|
|Fraction up to 100°C||14||Fraction over 350°C||6|
|Fraction 100 – 180°C||35||End||392.6 °C|
|Fraction 180 – 350°C||45|
|Elemental analysis, % w/w|
|Trace elements analysis, mg/kg|
|Fe||0.8||Halogens (as Cl)||<100|
|Major oil components, % w/w|
|Styrene||10||Other aromatics alkenes,||29|
|Flash point||< 20°C|
The RFT Fuel Oil conforms to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard specification for marine residual fuels:
ISO 8217:2005 (F)
Fuel Quality Standard for Residual Marine Fuels © ISO
|Density at 15 °C||kg/m³||Max||960.0|
|Viscosity at 50°C||mm²/s||Max||30.0|
|Micro Carbon Residue||% m/m||Max||10|
This fuel oil is equivalent to the Rotterdam (ARA) Residual Fuel Oil Sulphur 3.5%.
Derived Gas Oil
The RFT Derived Gas Fuel has a typical composition:
|Elemental Analysis, % v/v|
|Hydrocarbon analysis, % v/v|
|Propylene||3.0||Sum of C6 hydrocarbons||0.5|
The physical properties of these fuels are:
|Calorific content, kJ/kg||Density|
|Derived Fuel Oil||40,450||916 kg/m³ (15°C)|
|Derived Gas Fuel||28,000||1.24 kg/m³ (25°C)|
After washing, the carbon soot will be further processed by drying it and milling to the desired size, normally about 50 nanometres, to yield a commercial grade carbon black.
Carbon Blacks are classified using the ASTM D1765 – 13 standard, “Standard Classification System for Carbon Blacks used in rubber products.” This classification system covers the taxonomy of rubber-grade carbon blacks by the use of a four-character nomenclature system. The first character gives some indication of the influence of the carbon black on the rate of cure of a typical rubber compound containing the black. The second character gives information on the average surface area of the carbon black. The last two characters are assigned arbitrarily.
The RFT Carbon Blacks conform to the N550 and N 660 designations:
|Type||Fast-extruding furnace black||General purpose furnace black|
|Primary rubber processing properties and use||Medium-high reinforcement, high modulus and hardness, low die swell and smooth extrusion; used in tyre inner liners, carcass and sidewall compounds and hose and other extruded goods||Medium reinforcement and modulus, good flex and fatigue resistance, low heat build-up; used in tyre carcass, inner liners and sidewalls, sealing rings, cable jackets, hose and extruded goods|
|Average Primary Particle Diameter, nm||53||63|
|Iodine Absorption number, g/kg||43||36|
|Nitrogen Surface Area, m2/g||40||35|
|Statistical Thickness Surface Area, m2/g||39||34|
|Dibutyl Phthalate Absorption, mL/100g||121||90|
Goodyear (Europe) has conducted substantial testing on our carbon black and has found it has a high tearability index, positioning our product for the manufacture of high performance tyres.
Key Data on the spherised Carbon black has been omitted from the website due to its sensitivity on production revenue.
Carbon black is produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as Residual Fuel Oil or ethylene cracking tar. Carbon black is a form of amorphous carbon that has a high surface area to volume ratio, and is used as reinforcement in rubber and plastic products and in pigments.
A major game changer is spherised carbon black used for carbon anodes for lithium batteries. The carbon is selling for US$2,100 per tonne and global demand is about 500,000 tonnes a year growing rapidly. If metallic carbon is incorporated into batteries in the next few years demand will increase dramatically in line with battery expenditure. Volkswagon for example expect to spend $38 billion on batteries in the next five years.
Almost 90% of all carbon black is produced using the oil furnace process that requires fuel oil as the main feedstock. The consumption of fuel oil has been estimated at 1,600 kg per ton of carbon black produced. The process also requires gas (~240 m3/t of gas) and electricity (~330 kWh/t). Other costs of production include labour, some minor consumables and maintenance. In 2006, the costs breakdown was estimated to be:
|Fuel oil feedstock||52%|
|Other energy, consumable and maintenance||29%|
|Wages and Salaries||19%|
|Total cost of production||100%|
As oil prices increase, so should the cost increase of production of carbon black. However, the fuel oil and carbon black prices are not as well correlated as is the case of the other commodities that RFT project will produce, due to the impact of other non-energy related cost factors that affect this industry.
The price model is:
CBP = 1.725 (±0.13) FOP + 232.435 (±76.59) Eq. 4
CBP: represents the price of Carbon Black quoted in the press, expressed in US$/t
This regression has a coefficient of correlation of 0.786 that for 46 degrees of freedom has a statistical certainty larger than 95% and an error of than 2.5%.
We have identified and had detailed discussions with a major carbon black distributor in Hamburg who in addition to Goodyear has an interest in selling all our available carbon black.