Thermolysis Tyre Product Specifications


Derived Fuel Oil

The Derived Fuel Oil has a typical composition:

Appearance: Dark brown oil
Distillation, % w/w
Fraction up to 100°C 14 Fraction over 350°C 6
Fraction 100 – 180°C 35 End 392.6 °C
Fraction 180 – 350°C 45
Elemental analysis, % w/w
Carbon 86.3 Nitrogen 0.6
Hydrogen 11.8 Sulphur 1.0
Trace elements analysis, mg/kg
Pb 0.25 Sn 0.25
Zn 0.2 Hg <0.1
Cd 0.9 Na 1.1
Cu <0.1 Ca 0.97
Mn <0.1 Mg 0.58
Fe 0.8 Halogens (as Cl) <100
Major oil components, % w/w
Limonene 23 Toluene 17
Styrene 10 Other aromatics alkenes, 29
1:4-Dimethylbenzene 7 Carbon residue 0.99
Ethyl benzene 14 Ash 0.01
Physical properties
API-Grade 22.7 Cetane-index 27.9
Flash point < 20°C


The RFT Fuel Oil conforms to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard specification for marine residual fuels:


ISO 8217:2005 (F)

Fuel Quality Standard for Residual Marine Fuels © ISO


Parameter Unit Limit Value
Density at 15 °C kg/m³ Max 960.0
Viscosity at 50°C mm²/s Max 30.0
Water % V/V Max 0.5
Micro Carbon Residue % m/m Max 10
Sulphur % m/m Max 3.5
Ash % m/m Max 0.10
Flash point °C Min 60


This fuel oil is equivalent to the Rotterdam (ARA) Residual Fuel Oil Sulphur 3.5%.

Derived Gas Oil

The RFT Derived Gas Fuel has a typical composition:

Elemental Analysis, % v/v
Hydrogen 25.3 Oxygen 0.5
Carbon dioxide 13.9 Argon <0.1
Nitrogen  5.9 Carbon monoxide 5.6
Hydrocarbon analysis, % v/v
Methane 14.0 Butane 2.6
Ethane 16.4 Isobutene 0.4
Ethylene 4.2 i-pentane 0.2
Propane 5.8 Pentane 0.6
Propylene 3.0 Sum of C6 hydrocarbons 0.5
I-butane 1.1
Traces, mg/m³
Hydrogen sulphide 133 Moisture 7700



The physical properties of these fuels are:

Calorific content, kJ/kg Density
Derived Fuel Oil 40,450 916 kg/m³ (15°C)
Derived Gas Fuel 28,000 1.24 kg/m³ (25°C)


Carbon Black

After washing, the carbon soot will be further processed by drying it and milling to the desired size, normally about 50 nanometres, to yield a commercial grade carbon black.

Carbon Blacks are classified using the ASTM D1765 – 13 standard, “Standard Classification System for Carbon Blacks used in rubber products.” This classification system covers the taxonomy of rubber-grade carbon blacks by the use of a four-character nomenclature system. The first character gives some indication of the influence of the carbon black on the rate of cure of a typical rubber compound containing the black. The second character gives information on the average surface area of the carbon black. The last two characters are assigned arbitrarily.

The RFT Carbon Blacks conform to the N550 and N 660 designations:

ASTM Designation N550 N660
Type Fast-extruding furnace black General purpose furnace black
Primary rubber processing properties and use Medium-high reinforcement, high modulus and hardness, low die swell and smooth extrusion; used in tyre inner liners, carcass and sidewall compounds and hose and other extruded goods Medium reinforcement and modulus, good flex and fatigue resistance, low heat build-up; used in tyre carcass, inner liners and sidewalls, sealing rings, cable jackets, hose and extruded goods
Average Primary Particle Diameter, nm 53 63
Iodine Absorption number, g/kg 43 36
Nitrogen Surface Area, m2/g 40 35
Statistical Thickness Surface Area, m2/g 39 34
Dibutyl Phthalate Absorption, mL/100g 121 90

Goodyear (Europe) has conducted substantial testing on our carbon black and has found it has a high tearability index, positioning our product for the manufacture of high performance tyres.

Key Data on the spherised Carbon black has been omitted from the website due to its sensitivity on production revenue.

Carbon black is produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as Residual Fuel Oil or ethylene cracking tar. Carbon black is a form of amorphous carbon that has a high surface area to volume ratio, and is used as reinforcement in rubber and plastic products and in pigments.

A major game changer is spherised carbon black used for carbon anodes for lithium batteries.  The carbon is selling for US$2,100 per tonne and global demand is about 500,000 tonnes a year growing rapidly.  If metallic carbon is incorporated into batteries in the next few years demand will increase dramatically in line with battery expenditure.  Volkswagon for example expect to spend $38 billion on batteries in the next five years.

Almost 90% of all carbon black is produced using the oil furnace process that requires fuel oil as the main feedstock. The consumption of fuel oil has been estimated at 1,600 kg per ton of carbon black produced. The process also requires gas (~240 m3/t of gas) and electricity (~330 kWh/t). Other costs of production include labour, some minor consumables and maintenance. In 2006, the costs breakdown was estimated to be:

Fuel oil feedstock 52%
Other energy, consumable and maintenance 29%
Wages and Salaries 19%
Total cost of production 100%

As oil prices increase, so should the cost increase of production of carbon black. However, the fuel oil and carbon black prices are not as well correlated as is the case of the other commodities that RFT project will produce, due to the impact of other non-energy related cost factors that affect this industry.

The price model is:

                                               CBP = 1.725 (±0.13) FOP + 232.435 (±76.59)                                       Eq. 4


                                    CBP:    represents the price of Carbon Black quoted in the press, expressed in US$/t

This regression has a coefficient of correlation of 0.786 that for 46 degrees of freedom has a statistical certainty larger than 95% and an error of than 2.5%.

We have identified and had detailed discussions with a major carbon black distributor in Hamburg who in addition to Goodyear has an interest in selling all our available carbon black.